By A. Z. Fradin (Auth.)
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Extra info for Microwave Antennas
The dielectric rods usually have two forms - solid (lOa) and hollow (lOb). Hollow rods are also called dielectric tubes. The thickness of wall in the latter is usually made the same over the whole length. , they may be circular, square or rectangular. The shape of rod crosssection is characterized by the side projections, shown in Fig. 1 . 1 0 , to the left of the longitudinal section common to all of them. The solid dielectric rod is frequently made narrower at the end. Dielectric tubes, as a rule, have con stant cross-section.
However, in Maxwell's theory, the concept of electric currents is treated in a more general sense than solely as the motion of electric charges. 1), for example], are considered as equivalent to each other. 1) may also include both conductance currents and displacement currents. 1) are symmetrical with respect to -*· -»· the vectors Ε and //. Consequently, by analogy with elect ric currents in the form of variable electric fields, it is possible to introduce the concept of magnetic currents in the form of variable magnetic fields.
In horns, as can be shown, the electromagnetic radiation of the exciter takes the form of a cylindrical or spherical wave (depending on the form of horn) and all the energy is directed into external space, again through the aperture. In these three types of microwave antennas the directional pattern is formed as a result of the diffraction of the electromagnetic waves from the plane aperture. We have here a case simil6Lr to that familiar in optics of the diffraction of light from openings in a plane screen.