By B. S. Massey (auth.), B. S. Massey (eds.)

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**Example text**

Taking the universal gas constant as 8310 J/kg K and assuming the gas to be 'perfect', calculate its approximate relative molecular mass. A hydraulic ram 200 mm in diameter and 1·2 m long moves wholly within a concentric cylinder 200·2 mm in diameter, and the annular clearance is filled with oil of relative density 0·85 and kinematic viscosity 400 mm 2 /s. What is the viscous force resisting the motion when the ram moves at 120 mm/s? The space between two large flat and parallel walls 25 mm apart is filled with a liquid of absolute viscosity 0·7 Pa s.

P. The basic unit m 2 /s is too large for most purposes and so the mm 2 /s (= 1O- 6 m 2/s) is generally employed. s. unit, cm2/s, was termed the stokes (abbreviated S or St), thus honouring the Cambridge physicist, Sir George Stokes (1819-1903), who contributed much to the theory of viscous fluids. , 10- 2 stokes = mm2/s, was in wide use. Water has a kinematic viscosity of exactly 1 mm 2/s at 20·2 oe. Since data expressed in Imperial units are still commonly encountered, it is well to point out that errors frequently arise when units are used that arebased ondifferent primary units.

On the other hand, the pressure may be held constant while the temperature is changed. In either of these two cases there must be a transfer of heat to or from the gas so as to maintain the prescribed conditions. If the density change occurs with no heat transfer to or from the gas, the process is said to be adiabatic. 6) where}' (Greek 'gamma') = cp/c v and cp and Cv represent the specific heat capacities at constant pressure and constant volume respectively. For air and other diatomic gases in the usual ranges of temperature and pressure }' = 1·4.