By I. Gunsalus (Eds.)
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Additional resources for Metabolism
T h e presence of transaldolase a n d transketolase in gluconate-adapted, b u t n o t glucose-grown, cells of S. faecalis, supported t h e suggestion of pentose cycling and fermentation b y Embden-Meyerhof p a t h w a y . * An assay of gluconate-grown cells for phosphoketolase and acetokinase is indicated. I n addition to enzyme experiments, further growth yield measurements with lactic bacteria on a variety of substrates, including those more oxidized a n d more reduced t h a n hexose, should prove useful.
C. GUNSALUS A N D C. W . , based on energy released b y electron t r a n s p o r t as ratio cells formed per 0 t a k e n u p . Synthesis of cell components from glucose plus a m m o n i u m ion presents a further energetic problem in t h e form of t h e energy expendit u r e for monomer syntheses (see Section I I I , D ) . Diversion of carbon (energy) substrate t o cells in a n a m o u n t u p t o 25 t o 55 % of t h a t used requires energy calculations t o be based on t h e fraction of t h e substrate oxidized.
No accessory electron acceptor is required, reaction (14). 51 21 pyruvate + Ν , N -methenyl-fH -» acetyl-P + C 0 + N , N -methylene-fH δ 10 6 4 2 10 4 (14) 27 1. ENERGY-YIELDING METABOLISM I N BACTERIA F o r m a t e a n d formate derivatives are also products of t h e biological degradation of histidine. An energy-coupling mechanism equivalent t o t h a t found in t h e purine fermentation could be expected. T h e initial deamination and hydrolytic steps form formiminoglutamic, considered t o be a common intermediate in all systems studied, b u t this is apparently t h e extent of t h e similarities.