Contemporary Theories of Knowledge by Joseph Cruz

By Joseph Cruz

This re-creation of the vintage modern Theories of data has been considerably up to date to incorporate analyses of the hot literature in epistemology. instead of simply making mild amendments to the 1st version, Pollock and Cruz have undertaken a groundbreaking evaluate of twentieth-century epistemology. This booklet is either a sophisticated textbook supplying conventional discussions of foundationalism, coherentism, and reliabilism and a close treatise at the authors' personal distinct view, direct realism.

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Even though some crucial groundwork for our own view of reasoning will emerge here, the ultimate conclusion of chapter two will be that all foundations theories are false. If all foundations theories are false but the doxastic assumption is true then some coherence theory must be true. Chapter three will take up the general discussion of coherence theories, distinguishing between a number of different varieties, narrowing the class of feasible candidates to just a few and then rejecting them all.

These two broad topics will be the subjects of the next two sections. The problem of reasoning will prove more subtle than foundationalists often suppose, so in section four we attempt to develop a more nuanced foundationalism. 2. Basic Beliefs It is the existence of epistemologically basic beliefs that distinguishes foundations theories from coherence theories (recall from chapter one that coherence theories do not accord a special epistemic status to any privileged subset of the entire doxastic corpus).

We will argue that all foundations theories are false for the simple reason that people rarely have any epistemologically basic beliefs, and never have enough to provide a foundation for the rest of our knowledge. That can be taken to motivate coherence theories, which give no special place to beliefs pertaining to perception. But we will argue that all coherence theories fail for a related reasonÑthey are unable to accommodate perception as the basic source of our knowledge of the world. We claim that in determining whether a belief is justified, importance must be attached to perceptual states, but this cannot be accomplished by looking at beliefs about perceptual states.

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