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Additional info for Computerized Engine Controls (9th Edition)
Cengage Learning 2012 are called bipolar transistors because they use two polarities—electrons and holes (electron deficiencies). Bipolar transistors contain three doped semiconductor crystal layers called the collector, the base, and the emitter (Figure 1–47). The base is always sandwiched between the emitter and the collector. The major difference between a diode and a transistor is that a transistor has two PN junctions instead of one. In effect, a transistor is two diodes placed back to back.
Under these conditions, the circuit can still work, but not as well as it could, because the additional resistance reduces current flow through the circuit (Figure 1–28). Excessive resistance can also result from a faulty repair or modification of a circuit in which a wire that is too long or too small in diameter has been installed. The location of excessive resistance in a circuit can be easily found with a series of voltage drop tests, which are discussed in Chapter 6. 21 as used in electrical terminology means that the current is taking a shortcut rather than following the path it is supposed to take.
They are most often designed for extremely fast on and off cycling rates, and the base circuits that control them are designed to turn them on at full saturation or to turn them off. Transistor Symbols and Transistor Operation In electrical schematics, transistors are represented by symbols. Figure 1–50 shows the symbols that represent the components of a transistor: the collector, the base, and the emitter. When these components are arranged as in Figure 1–51, an NPN transistor is represented.