By Matthias Reumann
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Additional info for Computer Assisted Optimisation of Non-Pharmacological Treatment of Congestive Heart Failure and Supraventricular Arrhyth
Atrial remodelling Atrial remodelling is known as a series of processes leading to change in atrial structure and function. These changes include alterations in atrial electrophysiology (ionic remodelling), atrial dimensions, contraction and atrial (ultra-) structure (structural remodelling) [260, 199]. It is an important factor in providing the substrate that supports the maintenance of AF. The shortening of atrial refractory periods and atrial action potentials may be caused by a net decrease of inward ionic currents (N a+ , Ca2+ ), a net increase of outward currents (K + ), or a combination of both.
1 Cellular Anatomy and Electrophysiology A cardiomyocyte of the working myocardium has a cylindrical shape of 50 − 120 µm length and 5 − 25 µm diameter. While each cell is linked to other cells of the myocardium, it is also linked to the capillary system which is required for the metabolism. The cells “skin” is a membrane separating the inside (intracellular space) from the outside (extracellular space) of the cell. The intracellular space incorporates the nucleus that holds all genetic information for the function of the cell.
Finally, gap junctions - existing only in cardiac cells - make up channels between cells, connecting the intracellular spaces where all particles can pass through freely. They are therefore called non-selective. 2. 8. The figure shows the principle components of a cell membrane including a potassium (K + ) channel, a sodium (N a+ ) - potassium pump and the ion channel concentrations with their respective gradients . The voltage gradient points from the intracellular space to the extracellular space making the transmembrane voltage Vm negative in the resting phase.