Compiler construction using Flex and Bison by Aaby A.A.

By Aaby A.A.

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We do not illustrate a peephole optimizer for Simp. x := x + 1 y := x + 3 x := x + z ld x inc store x ld x ld 3 add store y ld x ld z add store x ld x inc dup ld 3 add store y ld z add store x 37 38 Chapter 9 Exercises The exercises which follow vary in difficulty. In each case, determine what modifications must be made to the grammar, the symbol table and to the stack machine code. 1. Re-implement the symbol table as a binary search tree. 2. Re-implement the symbol table as a hash table. 3. Re-implement the symbol table, the code generator and the stack machine as C++ classes.

Install( $3 ); ; id_seq : /* empty */ | id_seq IDENTIFIER ’,’ { install( $2 ); ; } } } } The IF and WHILE commands require backpatching. commands : /* empty */ | commands command ’;’ ; command : SKIP | READ IDENTIFIER { context_check( READ_INT, $2 ); | WRITE exp { gen_code( WRITE_INT, 0 ); | IDENTIFIER ASSGNOP exp { context_check( STORE, $1 ); | IF exp THEN commands ELSE { $1 = (struct lbs *) newlblrec(); $1->for_jmp_false = reserve_loc(); { $1->for_goto = reserve_loc(); { back_patch( $1->for_jmp_false, JMP_FALSE, gen_label() ); } } } } } } commands FI | WHILE exp { back_patch( $1->for_goto, GOTO, gen_label() ); } { $1 = (struct lbs *) newlblrec(); $1->for_goto = gen_label(); { $1->for_jmp_false = reserve_loc(); } } { gen_code( GOTO, $1->for_goto ); back_patch( $1->for_jmp_false, JMP_FALSE, gen_label() ); } DO commands END ; The code generated for expressions is straight forward.

Program optimizations – eliminating redundant operations, storing frequently used variables or expressions in registers, optimizing Boolean expressions, constant-folding. 42 • High-quality compile-time and run-time diagnostincs – “Syntax error: operator expected”, or “Subscript out of range in line 21; illegal value: 137”. Some form of syntactic error repair might be included. h" /* Code Generator */ #define YYDEBUG 1 /* For Debugging */ int errors; /* Error Count */ /*------------------------------------------------------------------------The following support backpatching -------------------------------------------------------------------------*/ struct lbs /* Labels for data, if and while */ { int for_goto; int for_jmp_false; 47 }; struct lbs * newlblrec() /* Allocate space for the labels */ { return (struct lbs *) malloc(sizeof(struct lbs)); } /*------------------------------------------------------------------------Install identifier & check if previously defined.

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