Code Optimization: Effective Memory Usage by Kris Kaspersky

By Kris Kaspersky

A consultant to optimizing courses at the laptop and Unix systems, this booklet covers the expediency of optimization and the the way to raise the rate of courses through optimization. mentioned are normal error made via programmers that reduce the functionality of the procedure in addition to simply applied ideas. specific descriptions of the units and mechanism of interplay of the pc parts, powerful methods of programming, and a strategy for optimizing courses, are supplied. Programmers also will the way to successfully enforce programming equipment in a high-level language that's frequently performed in assembler with specific recognition given to the RAM subsystem. The operating rules of the RAM and how within which it really is coupled with the processor in addition to an outline of programming tools that permits programmers to overclock the reminiscence to arrive greatest functionality are incorporated.

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Double-click on the tallest rectangle. exe. " Because the program was compiled without debug information, VTune is unable to understand which byte of assembler code corresponds to which code line. The compiler won't provide this information because, in the optimized program, the correspondence between the source code and machine code generated by the compiler is ambiguous. You can profile nonoptimized program, but what would be the point? This would be another program with different hotspots. High-quality optimization is impossible without knowledge of the assembler; therefore, click OK to work with assembler code and without source code.

However, memory subsystem performance is far from perfect. The current situation is even worse than it was 10 or 15 years ago. Typical PC configurations of the 1980s and early 1990s were equipped with 10 MHz processors and RAM with a typical access time of 200 nsec. Today, a typical PC configuration is 1,000 MHz to 2,000 MHz and 20 nsec. It isn't difficult to see that the performance ratio between the memory and the processor has decreased by a factor of hundred. 1: Billions of bit cells, packed within a tiny chip that fits easily in your palm, form contemporary RAM Despite the rapid growth of the RAM throughput in the past few years, the gap between the CPU and the memory has increased at a frightening pace.

Further optimization is only possible at the algorithmic level. There are no universal approaches or commonly accepted solutions to algorithmic optimization; each case must be considered individually, in the context of a specific environment. Returning to the example, think over the following question: Is it necessary to calculate checksums for each new password? Obviously, the CRC calculation algorithm used in this program is weak. You can replace it with an equivalent, but faster, option. Because the lower byte of the password is summed only once, when going to the next password, CRC usually is increased by 1 byte.

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