By A.V.S.& Knight, J.(eds.) De Reuck
Chapter 1 Chairman's advent (page 1): Professor O. Lowenstein
Chapter 2 listening to in Fish (pages 3–17): in line with S. Enger
Chapter three Evolution of the Auditory carrying out gear in Terrestrial Vertebrates (pages 18–40): A. Tumarkin
Chapter four constitution and serve as of the Ear and of the Auditory mind components in Birds (pages 41–63): J. Schwartzkopff
Chapter five listening to in Bats (pages 65–88): J. D. Pye
Chapter 6 Ultrastructure and Peripheral Innervation development of the Receptor relating to the 1st Coding of the Acoustic Message (pages 89–125): H. Spoendlin
Chapter 7 Cochlear constitution and listening to in guy (pages 126–142): Goran Bredberg
Chapter eight styles of job in unmarried Auditory Nerve Fibres of the Squirrel Monkey (pages 143–168): J. E. Rose, J. F. Brugge, D. J. Anderson and J. E. Hind
Chapter nine Efferent Inhibition within the Cochlea through the Olivocochlear package deal (pages 169–186): Jorgen Fex
Chapter 10 Orientation via Sound in Fishes (pages 187–206): H. Kleerekoper and T. Malar
Chapter eleven Localization and Lateralization of Sound in area (pages 207–233): William D. Neff
Chapter 12 function of the Pinna in Localization: Theoretical and Physiological results (pages 234–243): Dwight W. Batteau
Chapter thirteen Centrifugal keep an eye on Mechanisms of the Auditory Pathway (pages 245–258): I. C. Whitfield
Chapter 14 Auditory Responses Evoked within the Human Cortex (pages 259–271): Hallowell Davis
Chapter 15 Cortical illustration (pages 272–295): E. F. Evans
Chapter sixteen ultimate dialogue (pages 296–309):
Chapter 17 Chairman's remaining feedback (page 310): Professor O. Lowenstein
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Additional resources for Ciba Foundation Symposium - Hearing Mechanisms in Vertebrates
I 70-51 1 100 I 200 I I I I I I I I 400 800 1600 3200 6400 12800 Frequency C c l s l FIG. I . Auditory threshold curves of bullfinch (Pyrrhula pyrrhula) -0-, and man - - - -; modified after Schwartzkopff(1949). ANATOMY AND FUNCTION OF THE EAR External a i d vliiddlc ear Acoustic stimuli pass through the sound-collecting structures of the external ear and through the transforming middle ear on their way from the carrier medium of the air to the actual sense organ. The sound-conducting apparatus in birds has developed in an esscntially different way from mammals, but both groups are at about the same level of special adaptivc variability and are distinguished in this form from the lowcr vertebrates.
This is the bundle of 70-80 Herbst corpuscles in a row under the tibia, connected by muscles with the toes. So the perception ofground-conducted sound is sustained in erect vertebrates, but while air-conducted sound goes to the 38 DISCUSSION head, ground-conducted sound is perceived by some mechanism close to the feet. This is known behaviourally too; there are records of birds having signalled earthquakes in advance, and much more common ecological observations show that birds do depend on ground-conducted sound (see Schwartzkopff, J.
The nearest alternative was via the forelimb. This was a totally new creation and is found to-day in the Quadrate Vestibulo-hyoid (Amphisbaenids) Squamosal *. _. t -- . Oval Window , , -- - - _--. _ - - -. - . - . Vestibulo-squ amosal (Urodeles) . 7. ations. They were developed by the earliest amphibians long before air sensitive hearing appeared. vestibulo-scapular mechanism of the amphibia (Fig. 8). The reverseroute users also used the forelimb, or indeed any other part of the body that was in contact with the substrate; but they “perfected” their ear by increasing the mass of the stapes.