Chemical Fate and Transport in the Environment by Harold F. Hemond

By Harold F. Hemond

The 3rd version of Chemical destiny and shipping within the Environment explains the elemental ideas of mass shipping, chemical partitioning, and chemical/biological adjustments in floor waters, in soil and groundwater, and in air. each one of those 3 significant environmental media is brought via descriptive overviews, through a presentation of the controlling actual, chemical, and organic methods. The textual content emphasizes intuitively established mathematical types for chemical delivery and alterations within the setting, and serves either as a textbook for senior undergraduate and graduate classes in environmental technological know-how and engineering, and as a typical reference for environmental practitioners.

  • Includes many labored examples in addition to vast routines on the finish of every chapter
  • Illustrates the interconnections and similarities between environmental media via its insurance of floor waters, the subsurface, and the atmosphere
  • Written and arranged concisely to map to a single-semester course
  • Discusses and builds upon primary concepts, ensuring that the cloth is offered to readers who should not have an in depth history in environmental science

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Example text

1). 16) where {xi} is the activity of the ion (mol/liter), gi is the activity coefficient, and [xi] is the concentration of the ion in the water (mol/liter). One of the equations commonly used to estimate values of g is the Davies approximation (Stumm and Morgan, 1996): ! 35 a Morel and Hering (1993). z, charge number on ion. c I, ionic strength (M). 5 and z is the charge number of the ion of interest. 18) I¼ 2 i where zi is the charge number on each ion in the solution, and Ci is the concentration of each ion (mol/liter).

In this chapter, only the kinetics of chemical reactions is presented. Kinetics of chemical transfer between phases is not discussed until subsequent chapters because rates of chemical transfer depend on the specific transport characteristics of the media (as well as on the properties of the chemicals themselves). Sometimes the rate at which a given chemical reaction occurs depends only on the concentration of the chemical itself. A straightforward example is radioactive decay. In this situation, the number of atoms undergoing a decay reaction per unit time is simply proportional to the number of atoms present.

Thus, the Henry’s law constant can be alternatively expressed as the ratio of a chemical’s concentration in the gas phase to its concentration in the aqueous phase. , (mol chemical/liter air) and (mol chemical/liter water), the result is the dimensionless Henry’s law constant. If the temperature at which H was measured or estimated is known, an H with units can be converted to a 50 1. 27) Other dimensional forms of H, with units such as (atm m3/mol), are also commonly encountered. Needless to say, it is critical to be clear which form of the Henry’s law constant is in use, and what units, if any, are associated with it.

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