By P. Parvatha Reddy
Through ‘Green Revolution’ in past due Nineteen Sixties, India completed self-sufficiency in foodstuff construction, yet nonetheless the rustic has no longer completed self-sufficiency in creation of horticultural vegetation. lots of the development in nutrients construction throughout the eco-friendly revolution interval is attributed to using better degrees of fertilizers and insecticides that are carrying on with to spoil strong conventional ecosystems. The problem ahead of the crop security scientist is to extend yields from the present land with out harming the surroundings and source base. this is completed via adopting green Biointensive built-in Pest administration (BIPM) strategy.
BIPM comprises ecological and financial components into agricultural method layout and determination making, and addresses public matters approximately environmental caliber and meals protection. the advantages of enforcing BIPM can comprise lowered chemical enter bills, decreased on-farm and off-farm environmental affects, and more suitable and sustainable pest administration. An ecology-based IPM has the opportunity of reducing inputs of gas, equipment, and artificial chemicals-all of that are strength extensive and more and more high priced by way of monetary and environmental effect. Such discounts will gain the grower and society.
The current ebook offers with the latest biointensive built-in ways for pest administration using parts similar to bioagents [predators, parasitoids and pathogens (bacteria, fungi, viruses)], botanicals (biofumigation, oil truffles, FYM, compost, crop residues, eco-friendly manuring and different natural amendments), arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, actual tools (hot water therapy of planting fabric, soil solarization), cultural equipment (crop rotation, summer time ploughing, fallowing, intercropping, pruning, mulching, spacing, planting date, catch cropping, etc.), biorational chemical compounds (pheromones) and resistant cultivars. This e-book can function an invaluable connection with coverage makers, examine and extension employees, training farmers and scholars. the cloth is additionally used for instructing post-graduate courses.
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Additional info for Biointensive Integrated Pest Management in Horticultural Ecosystems
V. lecanii at 3 × 108 spores/mL is found effective in reducing the population of brown scale in humid areas. 1 D amping-Off, Phytophthora nicotianae, P. palmivora, Rhizoctonia solani, Pythium spp. Damping-off of seedlings in nursery bed is widespread problem in citrus industry. The disease frequently occurs in field nurseries where maintenance of sanitary measures is difficult. More than 20 % seedling mortality has been observed in Central India due to this disease (Naqvi 2001). (i) Symptoms: Necrosis of tissue and typical damping-off of seedlings occur due to fungal infection just above the soil level.
Rishbeth (1960) suggested that nematodes breakdown resistance to Panama wilt in Lacatan bananas. (ii) Integrated Management (a) Bioagents, Botanicals and Chemicals: Soil application of neem cake + T. viride + carbendazim was found effective in reducing the burrowing nematode ( R. similis) and wilt ( F. oxysporum f sp. 887 MT/ha in control). 72 (Ravi et al. 2001). 2 Citrus, Citrus spp. 1 Leaf Miner, Phyllocnists citrella (i) Damage: It is a serious pest of nursery and young plants but even attacks the grown up cit- rus trees all over India.
In primary nursery beds perpetuates and causes further losses to seedlings in secondary nursery beds. The budded plants show stunted, chlorotic growth with development of poor feeder roots. (ii) Integrated Management (a) Bioagents and Botanicals: Mixing 1 kg of T. viride in 40 kg of FYM and incubating the mixture for 24 h and application at 250 g mixture/m2 is effective. 2 Foot Rot, Root Rot, Crown Rot, Gummosis, Leaf Fall and Fruit Rot, Phytophthora palmivora, P. nicotianae var. parasitica The disease seems to occur especially in the high rainfall areas.