By John A. Keller
John Keller offers a suite of recent essays on ontology, time, freedom, God, and philosophical procedure. Our knowing of those matters has been drastically complicated, because the Nineteen Seventies, by means of the paintings of Peter van Inwagen. during this quantity prime philosophers interact along with his paintings, and van Inwagen himself deals selective responses.
summary: John Keller offers a suite of recent essays on ontology, time, freedom, God, and philosophical strategy. Our figuring out of those matters has been enormously complex, because the Nineteen Seventies, through the paintings of Peter van Inwagen. during this quantity best philosophers interact along with his paintings, and van Inwagen himself bargains selective responses
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Extra info for Being, freedom, and method: themes from the philosophy of Peter Van Inwagen
If one is, for example, an idealist, then one will hold that the basic or fundamental universals are fully determinate mental universals of some sort. If, on the other hand, one is a reductive physicalist, one will hold that what are fundamental are the sorts of fully determinate universals posited by our best physics, and dualists will likely posit universals of both sorts. In short, the universals posited by a constituent theory will be limited to those fully determinate ﬁrst order universals that are required to yield what its practitioners take to be the ultimate nature or character of familiar particulars.
Accordingly, they insist that very few predicate terms carry ontological force—only those expressing the contents required to invest familiar particulars with the character they have. They call those contents basic or fundamental universals; they tell us that these universals are one and all fully determinate ﬁrst order universals; and since they endorse the Principle of Instantiation, they limit their basic or fundamental universals to fully determinate ﬁrst order universals that actually are (now or tenselessly) immanent in or constituents of some concrete particular.
32 Such a theory manages to be both immanentist and relational, but only because it is a two-step ontological theory. There is a genuine opposition between our two strategies: at each step in one’s explanation of character one must choose between the strategies. As our examples testify, when they seek to explain the character of familiar particulars, ontologists typically provide accounts that take us, in a single step, to some source of character, whether immanent or transcendent, that has character nonderivatively or in its own right.