By Leslie A. Real (auth.), Roger N. Hughes (eds.)
Behavioural Mechanisms of meals Selection examines animals belonging to different trophic teams, from carnivores, herbivores, micro-algal grazers, to filter-feeders and detritus-feeders. long ago optimum Foraging conception has been utilized to a lot of these teams, yet in numerous methods and in disci plines that infrequently overlap. right here options and advancements hitherto scattered within the literature are drawn jointly. This uniquely huge synthesis captures the state-of-the-art within the learn of nutrition choice and prescribes new targets in theoretical improvement and research.
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Additional info for Behavioural Mechanisms of Food Selection
The handling time of an item is assumed to depend on the mass B of the bolus at the time that the item is caught. The particular form of dependence used for calculations was HL (B) = hL + kL B and Hs (B) = hs + ks B . It is assumed that items are small compared to the typical final mass of the bolus and are found relatively frequently, so that the bolus accumulates as a smooth deterministic flow. The optimal bolus B* depends on 't, obtained without knowing this dependence. but the form of the optimal policy can be There are two critical bolus sizes, B j and B2 , such that (i) if B* < B then only large items are collected (ii) if B j < B* < B2 then only large items are collected until B j =B j , after which both types are collected (iii) if B* > B2 then only large items are collected while B < B j , both types are collected while B < B < B2 , and only small items collected when B > B2 .
Conclusions I have shown how in the context of rate maximization the predictions of the standard prey choice model may change if various aspects of the biology are changed. One sort of effect that is not found in the standard model is the influence of chance, as illustrated by the "contingent" or "sequential" policies in the wheatear model. The next section describes a more general approach than rate maximization. It is able to allow decisions to depend on the animal's state. This is clearly more realistic than the rate-maximization approach, but it also tends to require more infonnation.
D) A bird can decrease its probability of starvation by carrying extra fat reserves. Lima (1986) and McNamara & Houston (in press, a) consider two different mechanisms by which increasing fat reserves, and hence body mass, increases predation risk. Increasing body mass results in increased metabolic costs, especially for flight. This means that more food must be obtained to maintain body weight and hence more time must be spent foraging. Thus the bird is exposed to predators for a greater time each day (cf (a».