By Marco Barbero, Roberto Merletti, Alberto Rainoldi
Invasive electromyography is a well-established diagnostic software that has been used for many years through neurologists. lately, new and substitute units have more and more develop into to be had that allow analysis with out using needles. This constructing zone of technological know-how and the recent instruments haven't, even though, been sufficiently investigated in educational education. therefore a niche exists among what technological know-how is making attainable and the competence received in the course of graduate reviews. this useful quantity has the purpose of filling this hole by way of offering the knowledge required through clinical practitioners in rehabilitation, activities, and occupational healthiness in addition to via rehabilitation therapists, ergonomists, and recreation coaches. The ideas which are provided and defined may help in tracking and recording adjustments, comparing the effectiveness of remedies and coaching, comparing paintings stations, and fighting and documenting the evolution of occupational issues of the neuromuscular system.
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Extra resources for Atlas of Muscle Innervation Zones: Understanding Surface Electromyography and Its Applications
4. 4a, c, and e depict the events that take place in time and space around the circumference of the cell. They show cylindrical symmetry. As indicated in Fig. 3b, these events can be modeled as being due to point sources of current. The current entering the cell can be represented as a downwards arrow, with its length representing the current intensity and its position the point of entry (which is the centroid of the region of entry). Similarly, the current exiting the cell can be rep- 25 Fig. 4 Generation and propagation of an AP in a cylindrical muscle fiber.
This is because the muscle does not shift but instead shortens; therefore its proximal portion moves very little, the mid portion (the site of the IZ) moves more, and the distal portion much more. As a first rough approximation, for simplicity, we shift (rather than compress, as should be done) the signals up by 16 mm (two inter-electrode distances) and expect that at least the channels near the IZ will match. This is indeed what is shown in Fig. 11c, where the MUAP drawn with a solid line is shifted up by two channels and superimposed with the MUAP drawn with a dashed line.
D Differential voltages taken between adjacent electrodes in the order VA – VB = V1; VO – VP = V15. 4 The “End-of-Fiber” Effect tential distribution over the skin, V1 and V2 (Figs. 5b), measured with respect to a remote reference at zero potential. The voltages at outputs 1–15 of Fig. 5e are the differences, at time tk, VA – VB, VB – VC, up to VO – VP. Their continuous (analog) versions are labeled V3 and V4 and their samples V1–V15 in Fig. 5e. The voltages V3 and V4 and their samples are not present on the skin, they are computed by the detection system constituted by the 15 differential amplifiers, as described in Sect.