Artificial Intelligence - IEEE Artificial Neural Networks A by Pankaj Mehra

By Pankaj Mehra

The aim of this publication is to make synthetic Neural Networks available to scholars, academicians, engineers, and different pros who are looking to know about the sphere , in addition to to researchers, who can use this instructional to turn into expert approximately present learn.

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3 Insurance as trading in risks Buying and selling of insurances may be viewed as trading in state-contingent goods (wealth or income as the case may be). In case of two persons trading in state-contingent goods we may use the Pareto-Edgeworth box diagram to explain the equilibrium. 3, we have constructed the box diagram in state-contingent wealths for two individuals, land 11. As usual, we assume that both individuals attach same probabilities to the different states of the world and they have different state independent utility functions.

The existence of a point like E' contradicts the condition (b) of Rothschild-Stiglitz equilibrium. Therefore, E can not be a pooling equilibrium. Although we can not have a pooling equilibrium satisfying the RothschildStiglitz condition, we may have a separating equlibrium which consists of a set of contracts and different types of elients buy different contracts. 5, the point y denotes the point of intersection between the AL line and the indifference curve of H-type on which the point a lies.

This is the moral hazard caused by insurance. The effect of moral hazard on the insurance market is very similar to that of the phenomenon of adverse selection. If some of the insurees start behaving unreasonably, the market odds for accident will increase which will ultimately increase the premium for insurance. Consequently, some low-risk insurance-buyers will leave the market or underinsure themselves which will further increase the market odds. The process will go on till the price for insurance reaches equilibrium at a very high level and only the high-risk or extremely risk averse people will get themselves insured.

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