Artificial Intelligence by K.D. Pavate

By K.D. Pavate

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To explain a particular reasoning all one has to do is to keep track of the rules which have been used and display them on the screen. * Modifications are easy. In rule-based systems the knowledge-base can be modified by adding, deleting or changing the rules. * Understanding is also easy since the production rules are extremely readable. Frames : A frame is a method of representing objects and their relationships in the form of columns and rows. It is useful since the method envisages breaking down objects or situations i n t o their constituent parts.

We learn of these facts by observation, discussing with other people and by reading books. Concepts are symbolic for us human beings. They are very useful and help us in comprehending complex objects and situations. The concept of a "car" can be vividly recalled in our minds on just hearing the sound of the engine or its horn or the screeching of its brakes. This concept leads us, by our thought processes to recollect about the mechanism of the car, the need to buy petrol, the price of petrol, requirement of a license to drive a car, new traffic laws which are currently being enforced, etc.

Means-end analysis: In this analysis, the problem is usually broken-down into a series of smaller sub-problems, each of A JREOBLEM SOLVER 47 which is solved separately. This has the effect of keeping the size of each search-space within reasonable limits. One now moves from one sub-problem to another. The new tree will consist of nodes which are both the goal of one sub-problem and the root node from which the search for a solution to the next sub-problem would commence. Generally speaking the programmer has to choose between the depth-first and the breadth-first search methods.

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