By A. Forster
Within the post-Cold battle period, eu militaries are engaged in an ongoing edition that's tough kinfolk among military and the societies that they serve. This e-book deals an leading edge conceptual framework to seriously overview modern civil-military family members around the continent of Europe. It analyzes 8 key concerns in defense force and society family, to discover the size and depth of those adjustments.
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Extra resources for Armed Forces and Society in Europe (Palgrave Texts in International Relations)
A further element of the processes of engagement between the armed forces and the civilian political authorities into which the concept of governance gives insight is the role played by norms and values. The predominant focus of the existing debate is institutionalist in the sense that it focuses on the formal institutional mechanisms through which the civilian sector ‘controls’ armed forces, notably the constitutional arrangements, chains of command and laws governing the use of armed forces. Legally defined institutional chains of responsibility, legislative oversight of defence policy and civilian control of the defence budget are all plainly important elements of any system of democratic control.
In presidential systems, as found for instance in Bulgaria, Finland, France, Poland, Romania, Russia and Ukraine an elected president is the head of state with both de facto and de jure responsibilities as supreme commander of the armed forces. The defence minister is accountable to the president with the former holding the power to remove ministers in the defence ministry; in the case of Finland it is the president who also has the power of decision over promotions (Finnish MoD, 2004: 14). Often in presidential systems, the chief of defence (the most senior military officer) has considerably more responsibilities in advising the president than the Minister of Defence, compared with prime ministerial and semi-presidential systems.
As noted, much of the academic literature focuses on military intervention in politics in the form of coups in which the military is directly or indirectly a key participant. However, while military intervention has taken place in Democratic Governance of Armed Forces in Europe 23 Portugal (1975), Greece (1967) and Turkey (1960, 1971, 1980, 1997) it has not occurred elsewhere in western Europe. Likewise in central and eastern Europe despite a successful coup in Poland in 1979 and failed coup in Russia in 1991 these are exceptions.