By H. Koopman, D. Sportiche, E. Stabler
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Extra info for An Introduction to Syntactic Analysis and Theory
So the idea that the acceptable sentences are the ones you remember hearing before does not even close to right. Convinced, but with another proposal: OK, so let’s agree that speakers do not judge acceptability or understand sentences just by remembering them. g. the sequences of categories that they have heard before. For example, hearing The dog chased the cat the speaker remembers that a sentence can be formed from the sequence D N V D N, and from The cat scratched the dog on the nose the speaker remembers that a sentence can be formed from the sequence D N V D N P D N, and so on.
Hole into disappeared ground the the in clever a little c. The snake clever disappeared into a hole in the ground d. e. fully acceptable, b as incomprehensible, c as possibly comprehensible but not quite well formed, and d as human speech but not much else (for speakers who do not know French: d is a translation of a into French). The differences between a, b and c are (possibly among other things) judgments about word order, and they are the kind of thing that our theory of syntax should explain.
Suppose you know 10, 000 nouns. Then your language would let you consider 10, 000 n compounds of length n. ): the appeared. If you know at least 10, 000 nouns, then each one can go in this frame, so there are at least 10, 000 sentences that are 3 words long. Using all the 2-word noun compounds, there are at least 10, 0002 sentences that are 4, words long. And in general, for any n > 1 there are actually many more than 10, 000n different sentences of length n + 2, since the ones formed by this frame are a tiny fraction of the whole English language.