Amorphous Solids: Low-Temperature Properties by W. A. Phillips (auth.), W. Andrew Phillips Ph.D. (eds.)

By W. A. Phillips (auth.), W. Andrew Phillips Ph.D. (eds.)

It is now ten years because it used to be first convincingly proven that under 1 okay the ther­ mal conductivity and the warmth ability of amorphous solids behave in a manner that's strikingly varied to that of crystalline solids. seeing that that point there was a wide selection of experimental and theoretical stories that have not just outlined and clarified the low temperature challenge extra heavily, yet have additionally associated those adjustments among amorphous and crystalline solids to these prompt through older acoustic and thermal experiments (extending as much as a hundred K). The curiosity during this a bit of constrained department of physics lies to a substantial quantity within the indisputable fact that the diversities have been so unforeseen. it'd be notion that because the tempera­ ture, probing frequency, or extra quite often the power decreases, a continuum de­ scription during which structural changes among glass and crystal are hid may still develop into extra exact. In a feeling this is often actual, however it seems that there exists in an amorphous good a wide density of extra excitations that have no counterpart in general crystals. This e-book provides a survey of the big variety of experimental investigations of those low power excitations, including a re­ view of some of the theoretical versions recommend to provide an explanation for their lifestyles and nature.

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There is one very important exception to be found in the recent work of BRODSKY et al. 21] on glow discharge deposited Si. Raman and infrared spectra provide a measure of the quantity of hydrogen present and the relative fractions of hydrogen bonded singly, in pairs, etc. to the Si network. 22]. Some of the problems which remain for study in the field are as follows: a) Can one have something analogous to LO-TO splittings in amorphous solids? If so. how are they tq be calculated? 23]. b) Can a feasible experiment be devised, by means of which localised vibrational eigenstates are distinguishable from extended ones?

That it may be the states associated with the anomalous T3 specific heat that are responsible for the phonon scattering, however, is even more provocative and requires further studies. A time-dependent specific heat has also been reported by LEWIS et al. 45b]. Using a diffusion technique, these authors reported evidence for a time-dependent specific heat on time scales of 100 ms (at ~ 100 mK). 45c] interpreted these results as indications for two kinds of tunneling states, fast relaxing ones and slow ones, the former being 28 times more numerous.

In the following we will briefly summarize some of their most important findings. Instead of postulating, as had been done in earlier work, that the density of the tunneling states involved in the interactions with phonons is given by the 40 S,lica w a:: :::J ~ ~166 ---5 CL ~ w I- Q ~ Quartz! W I S:! u.. 10. Specific heat of silicon dioxide above 1K, plotted as C/T3. 9]). 37]). 33], same sample. 39]). 7)], BLACK and HALPERIN attempted to predict this density of states from ultrasonic observations and to compare it with the measured specific heat density of states.

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