By Vladimir Uspensky, A.L. Semenov

Today the suggestion of the set of rules is commonplace not just to mathematicians. It kinds a conceptual base for info processing; the life of a corresponding set of rules makes computerized info processing attainable. the speculation of algorithms (together with mathematical good judgment ) types the the oretical foundation for contemporary laptop technological know-how (see [Sem Us 86]; this text is termed "Mathematical common sense in laptop technology and Computing perform" and in its name mathematical good judgment is known in a huge feel together with the speculation of algorithms). besides the fact that, now not everybody realizes that the notice "algorithm" encompasses a reworked toponym Khorezm. Algorithms have been named after an exceptional sci entist of medieval East, is al-Khwarizmi (where al-Khwarizmi potential "from Khorezm"). He lived among c. 783 and 850 B.C. and the 12 months 1983 was once selected to have fun his 1200th birthday. a quick biography of al-Khwarizmi compiled within the 10th century begins as follows: "al-Khwarizmi. His identify is Muhammad ibn Musa, he's from Khoresm" (cited in keeping with [Bul Rozen Ah eighty three, p.8]).

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First, algorithmic processes have iterative nature. The general. 1ed "operator" by Kolmogorov) of the "immediate transformation" and apply it many times. For example, for Markov's normal. algorithms this operation is determined by a list of pairs (AI, B 1 }, ••• , (An' Bn); to apply this operation to a word P we find a minimal. i such that Ai occurs in P and replace the leftmost occurence of Ai by B;. Another essential. idea is stressed in the last remark: this is the idea of a locality of each step.

The system A( u, S) is called the algebraic system generated by the signature u and defined by the system of equalities S. This system in its turn is a quotient system of the free algebraic system generated by u if the congruence relation is defined as follows: two elements are congruent if their equality is a consequence of S. According to our definition we call an algebra generated by the signature p U {at, ... ,a,} and defined by a system of equalities S what is usually called an algebra of a signature p defined by a system of equalities S.

E. the operator Or is undefined on the current state) or a signal indicating the appearance of the "solution" is got. It is possible, however, that this process of transformations would never stop (if we get no signal at all). 0. Algorithm 19 4) The immediate transformation of S into S* = OreS) is based only on information about the limited "active part" of S and affects this active part only" ([Kol 53]). This citation contains two essential. ideas. First, algorithmic processes have iterative nature.