By Walter Geller, Martin Schultze, Bob Kleinmann, Christian Wolkersdorfer
This monograph offers a global standpoint on pit lakes in post-mining landscapes, together with the matter of geogenic acidification. a lot has been discovered over the last decade via examine and sensible event on the best way to mitigate or remediate the environmental difficulties of acidic pit lakes. within the first a part of the e-book, basic clinical matters are provided in 21 contributions from the fields of geo-environmental technology, water chemistry, lake physics, lake modeling, and at the strange organic positive factors that take place within the severe habitats of acidic pit lakes. one other bankruptcy presents an outline of equipment presently used to remediate acidic pit lakes and deal with outflowing acidic water. the second one a part of the publication is a suite of local surveys of pit lake difficulties from 3 eu nations and Australia, and case reviews of assorted person consultant lakes. a last case research offers an cutting edge method of assessing the commercial worth of recent pit lakes and balancing the prices and merits, a helpful device for determination makers.
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Extra resources for Acidic Pit Lakes: The Legacy of Coal and Metal Surface Mines
Negative values indicate alkalinity fluxes interflow contribution to be exceptionally high. Nevertheless, Lake Bockwitz demonstrates the importance of interflow and the processes that take place above the water table in the vicinity of a pit lake on pit lake acidification. Therefore, this component should be considered and, as far as possible, quantified when establishing acidity-alkalinity-balances of pit lakes or designing neutralization measures. Like the above-mentioned concept of zones of lowered groundwater, the example of Lake Bockwitz originates from Germany where mining takes place in unconsolidated rock.
2005). g. 109 9 106 m3 in Lake Cospuden, 213 9 106 m3 in Lake Goitsche), local depressions of a lake bottom can be filled and bathymetric maps of the anticipated morphology of the lake bottom, based on the final measurements of the mine surveyors before lake filling, will become inaccurate. g. Schultze et al. 2002). 2 Influence of Groundwater on Pit Lakes Martin Schultze Surface mining for coal, lignite, and metals requires the total dewatering of the mined portion of the ground down to the deepest level of the mine.
In conclusion, the common assumption of exponential light intensity decrease with depth is a rough approximation, at least in some cases. Vertical gradients of dissolved substances result in variable water properties. In the case of meromictic lakes, such a transition can be very sharp, as seen in Moritzteich where water properties go from oxic mixolimnion to anoxic monimolimnion conditions within several decimeters (see Fig. 5). 3 m 400 300 1m 200 2m 3m 4m 100 0 400 500 600 700 800 900 wave length [nm] Fig.