By John Palfrey, Rafal Rohozinski, Jonathan Zittrain, Ronald J. Deibert
Many nations all over the world block or clear out net content material, denying entry to information--often approximately politics, but in addition when it comes to sexuality, tradition, or religion--that they deem too delicate for usual electorate. entry Denied records and analyzes web filtering practices in over 3 dozen international locations, delivering the 1st carefully carried out examine of this accelerating trend.
Internet filtering happens in at the very least 40 states around the world together with many nations in Asia and the center East and North Africa. similar net content material keep watch over mechanisms also are in position in Canada, the USA and a cluster of nations in Europe. Drawing on a just-completed survey of worldwide web filtering undertaken by means of the OpenNet Initiative (a collaboration of the Berkman heart for web and Society at Harvard legislations college, the Citizen Lab on the college of Toronto, the Oxford web Institute at Oxford collage, and the collage of Cambridge) and counting on paintings by way of neighborhood specialists and an in depth community of researchers, entry Denied examines the political, felony, social, and cultural contexts of web filtering in those states from various views. Chapters talk about the mechanisms and politics of net filtering, the strengths and boundaries of the expertise that powers it, the relevance of foreign legislations, moral issues for firms that provide states with the instruments for blocking off and filtering, and the consequences of web filtering for activist groups that more and more depend on net applied sciences for speaking their missions.
Reports on net content material legislation in 40 varied nations keep on with, with each one kingdom profile outlining the categories of content material blocked by way of classification and documenting key findings.
* bankruptcy 1: Measuring worldwide web Filtering
* bankruptcy 2: web Filtering: The Politics and Mechanisms of Control
* bankruptcy three: instruments and expertise of net Filtering
* bankruptcy four: Filtering and the foreign approach: a question of Commitment
* bankruptcy five: Reluctant Gatekeepers: company Ethics on a Filtered Internet
* bankruptcy 6: sturdy for Liberty, undesirable for defense? international Civil Society and the Securitization of the net
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Extra resources for Access Denied: The Practice and Policy of Global Internet Filtering
For example, one ISP blocks considerably less political content than the other six ISPs tested. Only one ISP out of the five tested in Azerbaijan, AzNet, blocks access to a considerable amount of social content, most of which is pornographic, while the others block access to only a single IP address. In Myanmar, there is substantial variation in the filtering between the two ISPs tested. One filters much more pornography, while the other blocks a significantly greater portion of politically oriented Web sites.
5 A key aspect of control online—and one that we prove empirically through our global study of Internet filtering—is that states have, on an individual basis, defied the cyberlibertarians by asserting control over the online acts of their own citizens in their home states. The manner in which this control is exercised varies. Sometimes the law pressures citizens to refrain from performing a certain activity online, such as accessing or publishing certain material. Sometimes the state takes control into its own hands by erecting technological or other barriers within its confines to stop the flow of bits from one recipient to another.
These results therefore do not necessarily reflect the situation in other areas of the country. 5. org/). 6. The strategies for addressing alleged intellectual property rights violations can vary significantly from standard Internet filtering. Rather than blocking Web sites that continue to be available from other locations, efforts generally focus on taking down the content from the Web sites that have posted the material and on removing the sites from the results of search engines. Moreover, takedown efforts are often instigated by private parties with the threat of subsequent legal action rather than being initiated by government action.