A Partial Commentary to “The Miraculous Key Which Opens a by Khenpo Tsultrim Gyatso, Tony Duff

By Khenpo Tsultrim Gyatso, Tony Duff

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What about “human beings”; is it a term which expresses a collection or a term which expresses type? It is type because there are many examples of its own similar type, whereas for a term which expresses collection except for the one particular thing which is the collection being found there is nothing else that that name could refer to. Can these terms be used in reference to something which is not a thing {dngos med}? Can they refer to qualities such as long and short? If something is a term which expresses a collection, then its object of expression has to be a thing, but if it is a term that expresses type, it could be all manner of things including qualities.

Non-things includes both existent and non-existent phenomena (here we are talking conventionally, not superfactually). An example of an existent phenomenon that is permanent is space and an example of a non-existent phenomenon that is permanent is a flying blue pig. Existent permanent things are included in the fourth skandha. 5 The definition of a non-composite phenomenon {’dus ma byas} is that which is not produced by way of its own causes and conditions, that is, a non-disintegrating phenomenon {’jigs pa med pa}.

5 That which expresses merely the entity, ngo bo, of an object is the definition of grammatical name. An example of something expressing the mere entity of an object would be the term “vase”. The two doors of pervasion: whatever is an expressor of the mere entity of an object is a name, and whatever is a name is necessarily an expressor of the mere entity of an object. 1 The definition of grammatical phrase is that which expresses the entity of an object and gives it some specialization. For example if you say, “sound” then what you are expressing is a name; if you say, “sound’s” then you have changed the name to a specialized form of the name that can now be used in language22.

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